The Indian tax system is a complex and multi-faceted system that comprises of three main categories: direct taxes, indirect taxes and state taxes. The primary aim of this system is to generate revenue for the country’s development and welfare programs.
Direct taxes, such as income tax and corporate tax, are imposed on individuals and organizations based on their income and profits. The income tax in India is progressive, with different tax slabs for different income levels. For instance, for the financial year 2022-2023, the tax slabs are as follows:
|Taxable Income||Tax rate|
|Up to INR 2.5 Lakh||NIL|
|INR 2.5 Lakh – INR 5 Lakh||5%|
|INR 5 Lakh – INR 7.5 Lakh||10%|
|INR 7.5 Lakh – INR 10 Lakh||15%|
|INR 10 Lakh – INR 12.5 Lakh||20%|
|INR 12.5 Lakh – INR 15 Lakh||25%|
|Above INR 15 Lakh||30%|
On the other hand, Corporate tax is imposed on the profits of companies, with a rate of 30% for domestic companies and 40% for foreign companies.
Indirect taxes, such as value-added tax (VAT) and goods and services tax (GST), are imposed on the sale of goods and services. GST, which was introduced in 2017, replaced multiple indirect taxes and streamlined the tax system. GST is divided into five different tax slabs: 0%, 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%.
State taxes, such as stamp duty and property tax, are imposed by the state government and are used for the development and welfare of the state. The rate of stamp duty and property tax varies from state to state.
In addition to these taxes, the Indian government also imposes other taxes such as customs duty, excise duty, and securities transaction tax.
The Indian tax system is administered by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) and the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC), which are responsible for the collection and enforcement of direct and indirect taxes respectively. The Indian Revenue Service (IRS) is the premier tax administrative service in the country, responsible for the administration of the Indian tax system.
The Indian tax system is designed to generate revenue for the country’s development and welfare programs, while also ensuring that the tax burden is distributed fairly among individuals and organizations. However, despite its complexity, the system still struggles with lack of compliance among certain sections of the population.